2 – Ambiente Urbano

A bibliografia a seguir apresenta trabalhos sobre a relação entre o local onde as pessoas moram – vizinhança e cidade – e as implicações psicológicas destes locais sobre o bem-estar individual e coletivo.

  • Abbott, J. (1996). Sharng the city: Community participation in urban management. London: Earthscan.
    • [from the publisher] While the rate of urbanisation in the developing world has increased dramatically over the past 20 years, governments’ capacity to support urban growth has, in many cases, failed to keep up with this trend. Non-governmental organisations working in the field have long advocated community management of the urban environment as the best solution to this problem, and there is now a growing consensus that the answer does, indeed, lie with local communities. Yet there is still little understanding of what constitutes meaningful and effective community participation, or how it may be achieved in such a complex operating environment. Sharing the City gives a comprehensive account of urban community participation, both in theory and practice. It first presents a wide-ranging analysis of the issues, and develops a participatory framework for urban management. Using case studies and existing examples from around the world, and drawing on lessons learned from previous experience, it then develops the theory into a practical working model. Effective participatory urban management calls for a fundamental rethink on the part of all the actors involved – from local authorities and development agencies, through local and international NGOs, to the community-based organisations and the communities themselves. In redefining their roles and relationships, Sharing the City presents a new and radically different, yet viable and effective, approach to the concept of urban management.
  • Altman, I., & Wandersman, A. (Eds.). (1987). Neighborhood and community environment. Human behavior and environment: advances in theory and research, vol. 9. New York: Plenum.
    • [do livro] to the three needs of humans – food, clothing, and shelter – add a forth – a sense of blonging. The advantage of being part of a larbe group have led nomadic people to settle into stable communities, caused new towns to sprout up around the world, continued the sprawl of usburbia, and contributed to the deterioration and gentrification of urban areas. In short, the overall demographic makeup of comunities and neighborhoods is in a state of flux. In order to keep up with these changes, much research has been done on this fascinating and complex subject in the field of environment and behavior. Neighborhood and community environment is a broad based, comprehensive treatment of this topic.
  • Altman, I., & Zube, E. H. (Eds.). (1989). Public places and spaces. Human behavior and environment: advances in theory and research, vol. 10. New York: Plenum.
    • Public places and spaces comprise a multitude of man-made and natural settings, including urban streets, places and squares, malls, parks, aquatic environments, national parks and forests, and wilderness areas. The importance of these public settings is highlighted by difficult questions of access, control, and management: unique needs and problems of different users, and the dramatic reshaping of these environments that has occurred and will continue to occurr in the future. The issues addressed in the chapters of Publc places and spaces cover a broad array of the themes, research tops an design issues.
  • Appleyard, D. (1981). Livable Streets. Berkeley, CA: U California Press.
    • Street life in the modern city is seriously threatened. Encroachihg urban traffic is drving children from the streets and sirupting once quiet residential nighborhoods.
  • Arkes, H. (1981). The philosopher in th city: The moral dimension of urban politics. Prnceton U Press.
  • Banfield, E. W. (1974). A crise urbana: natureza e futuro [The unheavenly cty: The nature and future of our urban crisis, 1970]. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.
  • Baptista, L. A. (1999). A cidade dos sábios: Reflexões sobre a dinâmica social nas grandes cidades.São Paulo: summus.
  • Berkowitz, A. R., Nilon, Ch. H., & Hollweg, K. S. (Eds.). (2003). Understandng urban ecosystems: A new frontier for science and education. New York: Sprnger.
    • [from the publisher] Nowhere on Earth is the challenge for ecological understanding greater, and yet more urgent, than in those parts of the globe where human activity is most intense – cities. People need to understand how cities work as ecological systems so they can take control of the vital links between human actions and environmental quality, and work for an ecologically and economically sustainable future. An ecosystem approach integrates biological, physical and social factors and embraces historical and geographical dimensions, providing our best hope for coping with the complexity of cities. This book is a first of its kind effort to bring together leaders in the biological, physical and social dimensions of urban ecosystem research with leading education researchers, administrators and practitioners, to show how an understanding of urban ecosystems is vital for urban dwellers to grasp the fundamentals of ecological and environmental science, and to understand their own environment.
  • Bernard, Y., & Segaud, M. (eds.). (1991). La ville inquiete: habitat et sentiment d’insécurité. La Garenne-Colombes: Éd. de l’Espace Européen.
  • Bertini, F. (2007). Centro de Fortaleza entre afetos e sentdos. Fortaleza: Ed. FATECI.
  • Betjeman, J. (1947). English cities and small towns. London: Collins.
  • Biron, R. E. (ed.). (2009). City/Art: The urban scene in Latin America. Durham, NC: Duke U Press.
    • [from Amazon] In City/Art, anthropologists, literary and cultural critics, a philosopher, and an architect explore how creative practices continually reconstruct the urban scene in Latin America. The contributors, all Latin Americanists, describe how creativity—broadly conceived to encompass urban design, museums, graffiti, film, music, literature, architecture, performance art, and more—combines with nationalist rhetoric and historical discourse to define Latin American cities. Taken together, the essays model different ways of approaching Latin America’s urban centers not only as places that inspire and house creative practices but also as ongoing collective creative endeavors themselves. The essays range from an examination of how differences of scale and point of view affect people’s experience of everyday life in Mexico City to a reflection on the transformation of a prison into a shopping mall in Uruguay, and from an analysis of Buenos Aires’s preoccupation with its own status and cultural identity to a consideration of what Miami means to Cubans in the United States.
      Contributors delve into the aspirations embodied in the modernist urbanism of Brasília and the work of Lotty Rosenfeld, a Santiago performance artist who addresses the intersections of art, urban landscapes, and daily life. One author assesses the political possibilities of public art through an analysis of subway-station mosaics and Julio Cortázar’s short story “Graffiti,” while others look at the representation of Buenos Aires as a “Jewish elsewhere” in twentieth-century fiction and at two different responses to urban crisis in Rio de Janeiro. The collection closes with an essay by a member of the São Paulo urban intervention group Arte/Cidade, which invades office buildings, de-industrialized sites, and other vacant areas to install collectively produced works of art. Like that group, City/Artprovides original, alternative perspectives on specific urban sites so that they can be seen anew.
  • Bonaiuto, M., Bonnes, M., Nenci, A. M., & Carrus, G. (Eds.). (2011). Urban diversities – Environmental and social issues. [Advances in People-Environment Studies, vol 2]. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Bomfim, Z. A. C. (2010). Cidade e afetividade: Estima e construção dos mapas afetivos de Barcelona e de São Paulo. Fotaleza: Ed. UFC.
  • Bookchin, M., Boino, P., & Enhckell, M. 2003). O barro, a comuna, a cidade … espaços libertários! São Paulo: Ed. Imaginário.
  • Browder, J. O., & Godfrey, B. J. (1997). Rainforest cities: Urbanization, development, and globalization of the Brazilian Amazon. New York: Columba U Press.
  • Burke, P. (1996). Städtische Kultur in Italien zwischen Hochrenaissance und Barock [The historical anthropology of early modern Italy, 1987]. Frankfurt: Fischer.
  • Calvino, I. (1978). Invisble cities. [Le città invisibili, 1972]. San Diego, CA: Harcourt.
  • Canevacci, M. (1993). A cidade polifônica: Ensaio sobre a antropologia da comunicação urbana. São Paulo: Studio Nobel.
  • Careri, F. (2013). Walkscapes: o camnhar como prática estética [Walkscapes: el andar como practca esteti]. São Paulo: Ed. G. Gili.
  • Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T., & Tiesdell, S. (2003). Publc places – Urban spaces: Dimensions of urban design. Oxford: Architectural Press.
  • Carp, F. M., & Carp, A. (1982). Perceived environmental quality of neighborhoods: Development of assessment scales and their relation to age and gender. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2, 295 – 312.
  • Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivlin, L. G., & Stone, A. M. (1995). Public space. New York: Cambridge U Press.
    • [from the author: This book reveals the social basis for public space use, design and management. The authors – an architect/environmental designer, a landscape architect, an environmental psychologist, and an open space administrator – offer a well-integrated perspective of how to integrate public space and public life. They contend that three critical human dimensions should guide the process of design and management of public space: the users’ essential needs, their spatial rights, and the meanings they seek. To develop and explain these three dimensions, the authors draw on the history of public life and public space, evidence from recent social research, and a series of original case studies, all amply illustrated. Public Space offers an innovative approach for adapting the dimensions to the unique social and environmental context of each project]
  • Castells, M. (1975). Problemas de investigação em sociologia urbana [Problemas de investigación en sociología urbana]. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.
  • Çelik, Z., Favro, D., & Ingersoll, R.  (Eds.). (1994). Streets: Crtical perspectives on public space. Berkeley, CA: UC Press.
  • Choay, F. (2005). O urbansmo: Utopias e realidades [L’urbanisme: Utopias et reálitiés, 1965]. São Paulo: Perspectiva.
  • Chudacoff, H. P. (1977). A evolução da sociedade urbana [The evoluton of American urban society, 1975]. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.
  • Cole, R. J., & Lorch, R. (Eds.). (2003). Buildings, culture and environment: Informing local and global practices. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • DaMatta, R. (1997). A casa e a rua: espaço, cidadania, mulher e morte no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Rocco.
  • Davies, J. K., & Kelly, M. P. (Eds.). (1993). Healthy cities: Research and practice. London: Routledge.
    • [from the publisher] The growth of health promotion as a topic for discussion and a principle for practice is widespread, and affects all groups of health professionals. The Healthy Cities project, like Health for All, was inaugurated by the World Health Organization and has informed policy throughout the world.
      Healthy Cities: Research and Practice examines the application of the project in a number of countries. The contributors explore problems in the relationship between policy makers, communities, and academic researchers, and discuss how the Healthy Cities program affects housing policy, community development, scientific interchange and health education. In addition, the Editors, John Davies and Michael Kelly, provide a context by tracing the history of the WHO projects and discuss them in the broader context of scientific and philosohical debates about modernism and post-modernism.
      The contributors are drawn from practitioners and scientists with wide experience in the area from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and the United States. Healthy Cities will be invaluable to all those working at community level and in government with an interest in health, as well as students of health promotion.
  • Delfante, Ch. (1999). Achtekturgeschichte der Stadt: Von Babylon bis Brasília [Grande histoire de la ville. De la Mésopotamie aux Etats-Unis, 1997]. Darmstadt: Primus.
  • Dell, Ch. (2011). Replay city: Improvisation als urbane Praxis.Berlin: Jovis.
  • Dorfles, G. (1986). A arquitectura moderna [L’Architettura Moderna, 1954]. Lisboa: edições 70.
  • Drucker, S. J., & Gumpert, G. (1997). Voices in the street: Explorations in gender, media, and public space. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    • [bock cover: This text is about gender, public space and media technology. From historical studies of the physical world to the future-oriented journeys into electronic space, this book offers an introduction to the vast cross-cultural differences in the social use of public spaces which may connect or isolate].
  • Duany, A., Plater-Zyberk, E., & Speck, J. (2000). Suburban nation: The rise of sprawl and the decline of the American dream. New York: North Point Press.
    • [from Amazon: For a decade, Suburban Nation has given voice to a growing movement in North America to put an end to suburban sprawl and replace the last century’s automobile-based settlement patterns with a return to more traditional planning. Founders of the Congress for the New Urbanism, Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk are at the forefront of the movement, and even their critics, such as Fred Barnes in The Weekly Standard, recognized that “Suburban Nation is likely to become this movement’s bible.” A lively lament about the failures of postwar planning, this is also that rare book that offers solutions: “an essential handbook” (San Francisco Chronicle)].
  • Eisner, W. (2006). Nova York: A vida na grande cidade [Will Eisner’s New York: Life in the big city, 1981-1992]. São Paulo: Quadrinhos.
    • [This translation includes the following originals:
      New York: A grande cidade, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1986;
      O edifício, 1987;
      Caderno de tipos urbanos, 1989;
      Pessoas invisíveis, 1992
      da Amazon: Na estreia do selo Quadrinhos na Cia., o grande mestre do gênero não podia ficar de fora: nas quatro graphic novels reunidas neste livro, escritas nos anos 80 e 90, Will Eisner traça um retrato genuíno, ao mesmo tempo brutal e profundamente humano, da vida na cidade grande. Protagonizadas por personagens singulares, essas pequenas histórias registram momentos às vezes irônicos, às vezes trágicos, da vida dos habitantes da metrópole, revelando muito mais do que “um acúmulo de grandes edifícios, grandes populações e grandes áreas”. Nova York: A grande cidade e Caderno de tipos urbanos são compostos de vinhetas que registram, a partir do cenário da cidade, aspectos do dia a dia de seus habitantes. Esses breves vislumbres iluminam com delicadeza desde as situações mais cotidianas até as reviravoltas mais trágicas. O olhar agudo que se revela nas vinhetas ganha em O edifício e Pessoas invisíveis aspecto mais sombrio. Nessas histórias, que são sobretudo biografias de personagens solitários e esquecidos, Eisner põe em xeque o isolamento e a indiferença impostos pela metrópole. Verdadeira obra-prima dos quadrinhos, Nova York é um registro impressionante não só da sensibilidade de seu autor mas da vida que se esconde por trás de toda grande cidade].
  • Elkin, A. (1999). Urban ease: Stress-free living in the big city. New York: Pengiun.
    • from Amazon: Written in the quick-witted style of a true cosmopolitan, “Urban Ease” is an exhaustive anecdotal guide showing big-city dwellers how they can simplify their lives, reduce stress, and maximize the pleasures of urban living. By identifying the most common big-city annoyances that trigger stress, Dr. Allen Elkin provides tips for building greater resistance and reducing the opportunity for stressful situations. Citing such problems as restrictions in space, clutter and lack of organization, overabundance of distractions, aggravating neighbors, and a lack of personal time, this guide deconstructs patterns in the life of a city dweller and recommends how to make them simpler and more enjoyable.]
  • Endell, A. (1908). Die Schönheit der großen Stadt. Stuttgart: Strecker & Schröder.
    • [da Amazon: Der Architekt August Endell formuliert im vorliegenden Band ein Plädoyer für die Stadt als Lebensraum. Dabei beschreibt er eindrücklich ihr Wesen und ihre Natur und die besondere Schönheit, die die Stadt ausmacht.]
  • Ericksen, E. G. (1954). Urban behavor. New York: Macmillan.
  • Fischer, C. S. (Ed.). (1977). Networks and places: Socal relations in the urban setting. New York: FreePress.
  • Franco, M. A. R. (2001). Planejamento ambiental para a cidade sustentável. São Paulo: Anna Blume.
  • Freitag, B. (2002). Cidade dos homens. Rio de Janeiro: Tempo Brasileiro.
  • Gärling, T. (Ed.). (1995). Urban cogntion. London: Academc Press.
    • [from Amazon: This book explores studies on the nature, acquisition and use of cognitive representations of urban environments. Most of the researchers represented in this volume will be well known to environmental psychologists for their contributions to the field; therefore, this volume also provides a valuable cross-section of the work of key researchers in environmental psychology. This book examines the psychological processes whereby people summarize and distill a rich mixture of exeperiences, recording them in a form that allows future utilization. As such, the volume should be of value not only to environmental psychologists, but to all who are interested in how people make sense of the world around them].
  • Geddes, P. (1960). Cudades en evolución [Cities in evolution, 1915]. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Infinito.
  • Girouard, M. (1987). Die Stadt [Cities & People, 1985]. Frankfurt: Campus.
    • [from Amazon: This social and aesthetic history of the world’s major cities from antiquity to the present focuses on crucial periods of the cities’ past and examines their architecture in light of the men and women who used it].
  • Gmelch. G., & Zenner, W. P. (Eds.). (1988). Urban life (2nd.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
    • [from Amazon: What does urban mean? How do places and spaces change when they become urban? Why are people drawn to cities? How do anthropologists and others study urban places and the people who occupy them? Urban Life is topically and geographically wide ranging, with well-crafted contributions offering expert coverage of urban fieldwork experiences, theoretical concepts, and new research from an anthropological perspective. The book is organized into five parts: fieldwork, communities, structures and institutions, migration and adaptation, and globalization and transnationalism. Each part includes an introduction that provides background for its chapters. Each chapter begins with a headnote that highlights its significance. The richly ethnographic content of each chapter appeals to students and encourages them to reconsider their preconceptions about the social life and character of cities and city dwellers].
  • Gonçalves, O. C. L. (2003). Meio ambiente urbano. Chapecó, SC: Argos.
  • Gonçalves, T. M. (2007). Cidade e poética. Ijuí, RS: Ed. Unijuí.
  • Groat, L. (Ed.). (1995). Giving Places Meaning. Readings in Environmental Psychology. London: Academic Press.
    • [Amazon: Most environmental psychology researchers now agree that particular locations within the environment harbour rich significance for individuals and groups. There is a great deal of productive debate about the cognitive and affective processes that give rise to this significance; it is clear, however, that the significance of places can include both deep emotional attachment and more abstract aesthetic enjoyment. “Giving Places Meaning” shows the value of studying meanings in context and the ways in which they give our world significance].
  • Günther, H. (1991). Brasília como laboratório natural de ensino da psicologia ambiental. Em H. Günther (Org.) Textos do Laboratório de Psicologia Ambiental, vol 1. Brasília, DF: UnB / Instituto de Psicologia.
  • Guerra, A. J. T., & Cunha, S. B. (Orgs.). (2000). Impactos ambientais urbanos no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil.
  • Guiton, J. ed.). 1981). The ideas of Le Corbusier on architecture and urban plannig. New York: Braziller.
  • Hall, P. (1988). Cities of tomorrow. Oxford: Blackwell.
    • [book cover / Amazon: Cities of Tomorrow is a critical history of planning in theory and practice in the twentieth century, as well as of the social and economic problems and opportunities that gave rise to it. * A critical history of planning in theory and practice in the twentieth century, as well as of the social and economic problems and opportunities that gave rise to it. * Trenchant, perceptive, global in coverage, this book is an unrivalled account of its crucial subject. * Comprehensively revised to take account of abundant new literature published since its original appearance, and to view the 1990s in historical perspective.  Reviews the development of the modern planning movement over the entire span of the twentieth century].
  • Hallman, H. W. (1984). Neghborhoods: Their place in urban life. Beverly Hills, CA Sage.
    • [from amazon: Hallman’s in-depth study begins with the basic definition that a neighbourhood is both a physical place and a social community. Neighbourhoods are analysed as: personal arenas (where individuals perform certain classes of action, e.g. shopping); social communities (where individuals work together in groups and take part in some form of collective life); physical places (where certain amenities are, e.g. houses and hospitals which give an area a cohesiveness as a whole); political communities (of varying degrees of intensity); and as little economies (where people buy houses, rent houses, employ each other etc)].
  • Haubold, D. (1997). Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung und urbaner öffentlicher Stadt Raum. Oldenburg: bis Uni Oldenburg.
  • Hauff, V. (Hg.). (1988). Stadt und Lebensstil. Weinheim: Beltz.
  • Hayden, D. (1995). The power of place: Urban landscapes as a public history. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
    • [Amazon: Based on her extensive experience in the urban communities of Los Angeles, historian and architect Dolores Hayden proposes new perspectives on gender, race, and ethnicity to broaden the practice of public history and public art, enlarge urban preservation, and reorient the writing of urban history to spatial struggles.
      In the first part of The Power of Place, Hayden outlines the elements of a social history of urban space to connect people’s lives and livelihoods to the urban landscape as it changes over time. She then explores how communities and professionals can tap the power of historic urban landscapes to nurture public memory.
      The second part documents a decade of research and practice by The Power of Place, a nonprofit organization Hayden founded in downtown Los Angeles. Through public meetings, walking tours, artists’s books, and permanent public sculpture, as well as architectural preservation, teams of historians, designers, planners, and artists worked together to understand, preserve, and commemorate urban landscape history as African American, Latina, and Asian American families have experienced it.
      One project celebrates the urban homestead of Biddy Mason, an African American ex-slave and midwife active betwen 1856 and 1891. Another reinterprets the Embassy Theater where Rose Pesotta, Luisa Moreno, and Josefina Fierro de Bright organized Latina dressmakers and cannery workers in the 1930s and 1940s. A third chapter tells the story of a historic district where Japanese American family businesses flourished from the 1890s to the 1940s. Each project deals with bitter memories — slavery, repatriation, internment — but shows how citizens survived and persevered to build an urban life for themselves, their families, and their communities.
      Drawing on many similar efforts around the United States, from New York to Charleston, Seattle to Cincinnati, Hayden finds a broad new movement across urban preservation, public history, and public art to accept American diversity at the heart of the vernacular urban landscape. She provides dozens of models for creative urban history projects in cities and towns across the country.
  • Hellpach, W. (1939). Mensch und Volk der Großstadt. Stuttgart: Enke Verlag.
  • Hellpach, W. (1952). Mensch und Volk der Großstadt (2te, neubearbeitete Auflage). Stuttgart: Enke Verlag.
  • Helmer, J., & Eddington, N. A. (Eds.). (1973). Urbanman: The psychology of urban survival. New York: Free Press.
  • Hibbert, Ch. (1996). Cities and civilizations. New York: Welcome Rain.
    • Amaozn: This is a chronological study of the world’s cities, ranging from Thebes to Sydney and Rome to Moscow. The book traces the foundations and developments in human civilizations, looking at their differences and similarities worldwide, their archaeological roots and their modern blossoming].
  • Holanda, F. (2003). Arqutetura & urbanidade. São Paulo: pro edtores.
  • Hotzan, J. (1997, 2004). dtv-Atlas Stadt: Von den ersten Gründungen bs zur modernen Stadtplanung [1º / 3º ed.]. München: dtv.
  • Hotzan, J. (2004). dtv-Atlas Stadt: Von den ersten Gründungen bs zur modernen Stadtplanung. (3. Auflage). München: dtv.
  • Holston, J. (1989). The modernst city: An anthropoligal critique of Brasília. Chcago: U Chicago Press.
    • [book cover: The utopian design and organization of Brasília—the modernist new capital of Brazil—were meant to transform Brazilian society. In this sophisticated, pioneering study of Brasília from its inception in 1957 to the present, James Holston analyzes this attempt to change society by building a new kind of city and the ways in which the paradoxes of constructing an imagined future subvert its utopian premises. Integrating anthropology with methods of analysis from architecture, urban studies, social history, and critical theory, Holston presents a critique of modernism based on a powerfully innovative ethnography of the city].
  • Homberger, E. (1994). Scenes from the life of a city: Corruption & conscience in old New York.New Haven, NJ: Yale U Press.
  • Iveson, K. (2007). Publics and the city. Oxford: Blackwell.
    • [Amazon: Publics and the City investigates struggles over the making of urban publics, considering how the production, management and regulation of ‘public spaces’ has emerged as a problem for both urban politics and urban theory.
      • Advances a new framework for considering the diverse spatialities of publicness in relation to the city
      • Argues that a city’s contribution to the making of publics goes beyond the provision of places for public gathering
      • Examines a series of detailed case studies
      • Looks at the relationship between urbanism, public spheres, and democracy].
  • Jacobs, J. (1961/1992). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Vintage.
    • [book cover: A direct and fundamentally optimistic indictment of the short-sightedness and intellectual arrogance that has characterized much of urban planning in this century, The Death and Life of Great American Cities has, since its first publication in 1961, become the standard against which all endeavors in that field are measured. In prose of outstanding immediacy, Jane Jacobs writes about what makes streets safe or unsafe; about what constitutes a neighborhood, and what function it serves within the larger organism of the city; about why some neighborhoods remain impoverished while others regenerate themselves. She writes about the salutary role of funeral parlors and tenement windows, the dangers of too much development money and too little diversity. Compassionate, bracingly indignant, and always keenly detailed, Jane Jacobs’s monumental work provides an essential framework for assessing the vitality of all cities].
  • Jankowski, M. S. (1991). Islands in the street: Gangs and Amercan urban society. Berkeley, CA: U Calfornia Press.
    • [author:
      The overall goal of the research project was to understand the gang phenomenon in the United States. In order to accomplish this goal, I thought it necessary to understand what was similar in the way all gangs behaved and what was idiosyncratic to certain gangs. In addition, I thought it was also necessary to understand why certain gangs grew, others declined but lingered on, and others declined and died. What follows is an explanation of the research design, the method of data gathering, the method of data analysis and presentation, and some ethical issues related to the research.
      Past research on gangs had for the most part focused on gangs in one section of a city, gangs in one city, or gangs of one ethnic group. In order to understand the nature of the gang as an organization and the gang phenomenon in general, I believed it was necessary to undertake a comparative study. This was the only way to understand what gangs have in common with each other and what is idiosyncratic to particular gangs].
  • Jellicoe, G., & Jellicoe, S. (1995). The landscape of man: Shaping the environment from prehistory to the present day (3rd ed.). New York: Thames and Hudson.
    • [Amazon: This volume looks at the landscape of 28 cultures, ranging from ancient Mesopotamia to the present day, and shows how the environment is conditioned by the philosophy and religion of each civilization. A selection from Geoffrey Jellicoe’s “The Atlanta Historical Garden” is included].
  • Joachimides, C. M., & Rosenthal, N. (Hgs.). (1991). Metropolis: Internationale Kunstausstellung Berlin. Stuttgart: Crantz.
  • Karp, D. A., Stone, G. P., & Yoels, W. C. (1991). Being urban: A sociology of city life. New York: Praeger.
    • [Amazon: Being Urban examines the dynamic interplay between what theoretical perceptions tell us about urban life and how ordinary people interpret and respond to the actual experience of living in cities. A major focus of inquiry is the strategies people use to create community in an environment where, many theorists believe, only alienation and progressive disintegration are possible. In the second edition of this important work, the authors have expanded their commitment to interdisciplinary perspectives and have also included chapters on significant topics that have been largely neglected in urban sociology.
      Part I provides a review of the themes of urban sociology developed by nineteenth-century classic theorists and early American social scientists. In Part II, the authors look at selected aspects of everyday city life, including the bases of community, the primacy of social interaction for an understanding of urban life, and conditions that produce the breakdown of urban tolerance for diversity of cultures and lifestyles. A new chapter in Part II studies women’s experiences in cities. Part III explores institutional structures of urban life and broad patterns of cultural change, including a fascinating chapter on the distribution of power, stratification, and class structure in cities. Included in Part III is another new chapter, analyzing the role of sports in urban life. The final chapter discusses urban life in the postindustrial era, and the demographic, cultural, and historical factors that lie behind the ongoing transformation of American cities. This new edition offers a balanced treatment that avoids the anti-urban bias characteristic of much that has been written on the subject. Being Urban is appropriate for professionals and academics concerned with urban life, as well as for courses in urban sociology].
  • Kato, H. (Ed.). A comparative study of street life: Tokyo, Manila, New York. Gakushuin University.
  • Kazin, A. (1951). A walker in the city. New York: Harvest / Harcourt Brace.
    • [Amazon: Kazin’s memorable description of his life as a young man as he makes the journey from Brooklyn to “americana”-the larger world that begins at the other end of the subway in Manhattan].
  • Kellehear, A. (2005). Compassonate cities: Public health and end-of-life care. London: Routledge.
    • [Amazon:
      Once it was difficult to see end of life care beyond conventional medical intervention, but hospice and palliative care introduced a more holistic approach, providing quality of life for the dying and their families. This ground-breaking work takes end-of-life care beyond these palliative boundaries, describing a public health vision that involves whole communities adopting a compassionate approach to dying, death and loss. Written by a leading academic in the field of death and bereavement, this text outlines the historical, political and conceptual basis of compassionate cities, providing a community development model for end-of-life care.
      Moving away from infection control and health promotion Allan Kellehear invites us to think of a third wave movement of public health, joining empathy, equality and action together as practical policies. Presenting a radical new perspective to death, ageing and public health, Compassionate Cities is essential reading for academics and professionals alike].
  • Kleefisch-Jobst, U. (2003). Archtektur im 20. Jahrhundert. Köln: Dumont.
  • Kohlsdorf, G., & Kohlsdorf, M. E. (2017). Ensaio sobre o desempenho morfológico dos lugares. Brasília, DF: FRBH.
  • Kotkin, J. (2005). The city: A global history. New York: Modern Library.
  • Knox, P. L. (Ed.). (1993). The restless urban landscape. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    • [Back cover: This advanced reference deals with the radical changes that have occurred within cities since the mid 1970s as a result of the interplay of new economic, social, political, and cultural forces associated with the transition to advanced capitalism. It brings the cutting-edge of debate in urban geography to a single volume; expresses important new ideas and theories in an accessible format; addresses recent urban change; offers a dynamic approach to urban geography; and brings a cross-disciplinary approach to urban change, providing a big-picture context for ideas and theory. Suitable for professional geographers and environment and planning specialists].
  • Kohlsdorf, M. E. (1996). A apreensão da forma da cidade. Brasília, DF: Ed Univ Brasília.
  • Kohn, M. (2004). Brave new neighbourhoods  The privatization of public space. New York: Routledge.
    • [Amazon: Fighting for First Amendment rights is as popular a pastime as ever, but just because you can get on your soapbox doesn’t mean anyone will be there to listen. Town squares have emptied out as shoppers decamp for the megamalls; gated communities keep pesky signature gathering activists away; even most internet chatrooms are run by the major media companies. Brave New Neighborhood sconsiders what can be done to protect and revitalize our public spaces].
  • Kohr, L. (2008). Die Probleme der Stadt: Gedanken zur Stadt- und Verkehrsplanung. Salzburg: O. Müller Verlag.
  • Kokot, W., & Bommer, B. C. (Eds.). (1991). Ethnologische Stadtforschung. Berln: D. Reimer Verlag.
  • Koolhaas, R. (1994). Delrious New York: A retroactive manifesto for Manhattan. New York: Monacelli Press.
    • [Amazon: Since its original publication in 1978, Delirious New York has attained mythic status. Back in print in a newly designed edition, this influential cultural, architectural, and social history of New York is even more popular, selling out its first printing on publication. Rem Koolhaas’s celebration and analysis of New York depicts the city as a metaphor for the incredible variety of human behavior. At the end of the nineteenth century, population, information, and technology explosions made Manhattan a laboratory for the invention and testing of a metropolitan lifestyle — “the culture of congestion” — and its architecture.
      “Manhattan,” he writes, “is the 20th century’s Rosetta Stone . . . occupied by architectural mutations (Central Park, the Skyscraper), utopian fragments (Rockefeller Center, the U.N. Building), and irrational phenomena (Radio City Music Hall).” Koolhaas interprets and reinterprets the dynamic relationship between architecture and culture in a number of telling episodes of New York’s history, including the imposition of the Manhattan grid, the creation of Coney Island, and the development of the skyscraper. Delirious New York is also packed with intriguing and fun facts and illustrated with witty watercolors and quirky archival drawings, photographs, postcards, and maps. The spirit of this visionary investigation of Manhattan equals the energy of the city itself].
  • Kozak, C. (2004). Contra la pared: sobre graffitis, pintadas y otras intervenciones urbanas. Buenos Aires: Libros del Rojas.
  • Krupat, E. (1985). People in cities: The urban environment and its effects. New York: Cambridge Press.
    • [Back cover: People in Cities is about the experience of urban life. Edward Krupat analyzes current research and theory about the ways in which cities affect people. He contrasts urban living with life in smaller communities, and compares popular notions and stereotypes about city dwellers with the results of empirical research. Taking a social psychological perspective, he integrates ideas from psychology, sociology, urban planning, and architecture. Non-technical and readable, the book offers a sophisticated examination of models of urban life and explores the issues of stress and crowding, urban social relationships, images of the city, and the impact of good and poor design].
  • Kuhn, Ch. (1994). Zeit und Stadt: Französische Versuche. Zürich: Limmat.
  • Kuo, F. & Sullivan, W. C. (2001). Agression in the inner city: effects of environment via mental fatigue. Environment and Behavior, 33(4) 543-571.
  • Ladd, B. (1997). The ghosts of Berln: Confronting German history in the urban landscape.
    • [Amazon: In this compelling work, Brian Ladd examines the ongoing conflicts radiating from the remarkable fusion of architecture, history, and national identity in Berlin. Ladd surveys the urban landscape, excavating its ruins, contemplating its buildings and memorials, and carefully deconstructing the public debates and political controversies emerging from its past].
  • Lago, M. C. S. (1996). Modos de vda e identidade: Sujeitos no processo de urbanização da Ilha de Santa Catarina. Floranópolis, SC: Editora da UFSC.
  • Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris). (1987). The city of to-morrow and its planning [orginal 1929]. New York: Dover.
  • Lefebvre, H. (1999). A revolução urbana [La révoluton urbaine, 1970]. Belo Horizonte, MG: Editora UFMG.
    • [Amazon: Originally published in 1970, The Urban Revolution marked Henri Lefebvre’s first sustained critique of urban society, a work in which he pioneered the use of semiotic, structuralist, and poststructuralist methodologies in analyzing the development of the urban environment. It is widely considered a foundational book in contemporary thinking about the city, and makes available Lefebvre’s sophisticated insights into the urban dimensions of modern life. Lefebvre begins with the premise that the total urbanization of society is an inevitable process that demands of its critics new interpretive and perceptual approaches that recognize the urban as a complex field of inquiry. Dismissive of cold, modernist visions of the city, particularly those embodied by rationalist architects and urban planners like Le Corbusier, Lefebvre instead articulates the lived experiences of individual inhabitants of the city. In contrast to the ideology of urbanism and its reliance on commodification and bureaucratization—the capitalist logic of market and state—Lefebvre conceives of an urban utopia characterized by self-determination, individual creativity, and authentic social relationships.A brilliantly conceived and theoretically rigorous investigation into the realities and possibilities of urban space, The Urban Revolution remains an essential analysis of and guide to the nature of the city].
  • LeGates, T. T., & Stout, F. (Eds.). (1996). The city reader [1st ed.]. New York: Routledge.
    • [Amazon: An anthology of essential works on Urban Studies and Planning for students, practitioners, and anyone in the world who is fascinated by cities. Classic writings by Ebenezer Howard, Robert Park, Lewis Mumford, Raymond Unwin, and Jane Jacobs meet the best current writings by Peter Hall, Mike Davis, Manuel Castells and Saskia Sassen. writings have been carefully chosen for their interest and enduring scholarly value. A lively interdisciplinary introduction to how cities have evolved, what they are like, and where they may be headed. The City Reader combines the best writing from scholars throughout the world writing on urban geography, economics, sociology, politics, the humanities, culture studies, and urban design and planning. It emphasizes theory and practice, competing ideological perspectives on the city and major current debates. Topics include the evolution of cities, urban form and design, the culture of cities, urban politics and economics, and urban planning. The book pays particular attention to issues of race and gender, how global economic restructuring is affecting cities, the impact of technology on cities, and post-modern critiques of urban form. Introduct to the writings and comprehensive bibliographic references guide the reader and point the way to additional material. The first major anthology to bring together in one place a generous selection of the best classic and contemporary scholarship on cities by writers from all over the world. The anthology contains fifty lively, readable and thought provoking selections of enduring value. It is uniquely sensitive to the main currents which have influenced and are shaping current thinking about cities.
  • Legendre, A. (2005). Enjeux envronnementaux et urbains: Contribution de la psychologie environnementale. Ramonvlle Saint-Agne: Ed. Èrès.
  • Leite, C. & Awad, J. C. M. (2012). Cidades sustentáveis, cidades inteligentes. Porto Alegre, RS: Bookman.
  • Lerner, J. (2005). O vizinho: parente por parte de rua. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record.
  • Loderer, B. (1995). Der Mensch sieht mit den Füssen. Glattbrugg: Verlag Hochparterre.
  • Lofland, L. H. (1998). The public realm: Explorijng the city’s quintessential social territory. New York: Aldne.
    • [Amazon: This book is about the “public realm,” defined as a particular kind of social territory that is found almost exclusively in large settlements. This particular form of social-psychological space comes into being whenever a piece of actual physical space is dominated by relationships between and among persons who are strangers to one another, as often occurs in urban bars, buses, plazas, parks, coffee houses, streets, and so forth. More specifically, the book is about the social life that occurs in such social-psychological spaces (the normative patterns and principles that shape it, the relationships that characterize it, the aesthetic and interactional pleasures that enliven it) and the forces (anti-urbanism, privatism, post-war planning and architecture) that threaten it. The data upon which the book’s analysis is based are diverse: direct observation; interviews; contemporary photographs, historic etchings, prints and photographs, and historical maps; histories of specific urban public spaces or spatial types; and the relevant scholarly literature from sociology, environmental psychology, geography, history, anthropology, and architecture and urban planning and design. Its central argument is that while the existing body of accomplished work in the social sciences can be reinterpreted to make it relevant to an understanding of the public realm, this quintessential feature of city life deserves much more û it deserves to be the object of direct scholarly interest in its own right].
  • Löw, M. (2008). Soziologie der Städte. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.
  • Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • [Book cover: What does the city’s form actually mean to the people who live there? What can the city planner do to make the city’s image more vivid and memorable to the city dweller? To answer these questions, Mr. Lynch, supported by studies of Los Angeles, Boston, and Jersey City, formulates a new criterion — imageability — and shows its potential value as a guide for the building and rebuilding of cities. The wide scope of this study leads to an original and vital method for the evaluation of city form. The architect, the planner, and certainly the city dweller will all want to read this book].
  • Lynch, K. (1981). Good city form. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • [Book cover: Lynch looks at connections between human values and the physical forms of cities, sets requirements for a normative theory of city form, reviews earlier physical images of what utopian communities might be, sees what is to be learned from hellish images, and helps us place city forms into one or another of three theoretic constructs; cosmic or ceremonial centers, the machine city, and the city as an organism].
  • Marcus, C. C., & Francis, C. (Eds.). (1998). People places: Desgn guidelines for urban open space. [2nd ed.]. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold.
    • [Book cover:  A resurgence in the use of public space continues throughout North America and many other parts of the world. Neighborhoods have become more outspoken in their demands for appropriate park designs; corporations have witnessed the value of providing outdoor spaces for employee lunch-hour use; the rising demand for child care has prompted increased awareness of the importance of developmentally appropriate play and learning environments; and increased attention is being focused on the specific outdoor space needs for the elderly, college students, and hospital patients and staff.
      People Places analyzes and summarizes existing research on how urban open spaces are actually used, offering design professionals and students alike an easily understood, easily applied guide to creating people-friendly places. Seven types of urban open space are discussed: urban plazas, neighborhood parks, miniparks and vest-pocket parks, campus outdoor spaces, outdoor spaces in housing for the elderly, child-care outdoor spaces, and hospital outdoor spaces. People Places contains a chapter-by-chapter review of the literature, illustrative case studies, and design guidelines specific to each type of space.
      People Places has a number of features that can be easily incorporated into the design process:
      * Clear, readable translations of existing research on people’s use of outdoor spaces.
      * Performance-based design recommendations that specify key relationships between design and use.
      * Design review checklists that help readers plan and critique designs.
      * A clearly organized, concise format equally useful to the design practitioner and the design student.
      The newly revised edition of People Places also includes:
      * Discussion of accessibility issues, including ADA regulations and the concept of universal design; and of design responses aimed at crime reduction.
      * Procedures for conducting post-occupancy evaluations of designed outdoor spaces.
      * Updated and new information on each type of outdoor space, with special attention to hospitals, child care facilities, and campus outdoor spaces where specific advances have occurred since 1990.
      * A completely new color-photo section and 50 new black and white illustrations.
      Winner of the Merit Award in Communication from the American Society of Landscape Architects, People Places is an essential working tool for landscape architects and architects, city planners, urban designers, neighborhood groups, and anyone else concerned with the quality of urban open space].
  • Mascaró, L. (1996). Ambiência urbana. Porto Alegre, RS: Sagra Luzzatto.
  • Mehrabian, A. (1976). Publc places and privat spaces: The psychology of work, play, and living environments. New York: Basc Books.
  • Mendonça, F. (Org.). Impactos socioambientais urbanos. Curitiba, PR: Editora UFPr.
  • Mercer, Ch. (1975). Living in cities: Psychology: Psychology and the urban environment. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 
  • Merrill, J. (1987). The pushcart war. New York: Yearlng.
      It’s a story of how regular people banded together and, armed with  little more than their brains and good aim, defeated a mighty foe.
      Not long ago the streets of New York City were smelly, smoggy, sooty, and loud. There were so many trucks making deliveries that it might take an hour for a car to travel a few blocks. People blamed the truck owners and the truck owners blamed the little wooden pushcarts that traveled the city selling everything from flowers to hot dogs. Behind closed doors the truck owners declared war on the pushcart peddlers. Carts were smashed from Chinatown to Chelsea. The peddlers didn’t have money or the mayor on their side, but that didn’t stop them from fighting back. They used pea shooters to blow tacks into the tires of trucks, they outwitted the police, and they marched right up to the grilles of those giant trucks and dared them to drive down their streets. Today, thanks to the ingenuity of the pushcart peddlers, the streets belong to the people—and to the pushcarts].
  • Michelson, W. (1976). Man and his urban environment: a sociological approach. Readng, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Mikolett, A., & Pürckhauer, M. (2011). Urban code: 100 lessons for understandng the city. Cambrdge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Milgram, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities: Adaptation to urban overload create characteristic qualities of city life that can be measured. Science, 167, 1461-1468.
  • Mitscherlich, A. (1965). Die Unwirtlichkeit unserer Städte: Anstiftung zum Unfrieden. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.
  • Morais, R. (1981). O que é violêcnia urbana. São Paulo, SP: Editora Brasiliense.
  • Moser, G. (1992). Les stress urbains. Paris: Armand Colin.
  • Müller, M., & Dröge, F. (Hg.). (1998). Die Straße: Urbanes Leben im Viertel.
  • Mumford, L. (1961). The city in history: It’s origins, its transformations, and its prospects. San Diego, CA: Harcourt.
  • Nunes, B. F. (2004). Brasília: A fantasia corporificada. Brasília, DF: Paralelo 15
  • Olsen, D. J. (1988). De Stadt als Kunstwerk [The cty as a work of art, 1986]. Frankfurt: Campus.
  • Panerai, P. (2006). Análise urbana. [Analyse urbaine, 1999]. brasília, DF: Editora UnB.
  • Paviani, A., & Gouvêa, L. A. C. (Orgs.). (2003). , Brasília: controvérsias ambientais. Brasília, DF: Editora Un.B
    • [um dos capítulos: Barreto, F. F. P., & Günther, H. (pp. 125-156). Psicologia ambiental no Distrito Federal: uma agenda para pesquisa.
  • Phillips, E. B. (1996). City lights: Urban-suburban life in the global society. New York: Oxford U Press.
  • Pinheiro, A. A. A. (1983). Urbanzação, sexo e solidão [dissertação de mestrado]. Brasília, DF: UnB, IB, Departamento de Psicologia.
    • [author abstract: … first empirical work to explore the loneliness phenomenon in Brazil].
  • Portella, A., & Pereira. G. (Orgs.) (2017). Olhares da favela. Pelotas, RS: Editoera UFPel.
  • Ramati, R. (1981). How to save your own street. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
  • Rapoport, A. (1969). House form and culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Raulin, A. (2004). Anthropologe urbaine. Paris: Armand Colin.
  • Reifschneider, E. (2016). Ambientes restauradores: uma retomada do urbano. (Doctoral Dssertation). Brasília, DF: Universidade de Brasília.
    • [author abstract: Urban restorative environments: a retake. This research focuses on physical environments that restore cognitive and emotional capacities worn out in daily life. In comparison with natural environments, reflective glass buildings, unconventional architectural buildings and graffiti art murals were investigated. With a card sorting task we investigated whether these three elements were perceived as distinct from other urban elements and how they were classified (Study 1); with a semantic differential task we investigated what were their perceived restorative profiles (Study 2); and with an experiment we investigated in which way restoration promoted by the visualization of sculptural buildings (a subset of unconventional buildings) and reflective glass buildings compared to restoration obtained by nature scenes, in all cases after an experimental stressor (Study 3). The first study (n=152) showed that there are formal grouping criteria that are shared between subjects, that the three urban elements of interest comprise different groups and that groupings differ between lay people and people with art training. The second study (n=125) showed that nature is the most preferred environment (54,4%) as well as the one perceived as most restorative. Reflective glass buildings are perceived as mainly neutral and unconventional buildings and graffiti art are intermediate groups. Perceived restorative profile is different between lay people and people with arts training for subtypes of urban scenarios, but not for nature. The third study (n=40) showed that there are no differences in attentional restoration and restoration for physiological measures (electrodermal activity and systolic blood pressure) between nature, sculptural architecture and reflective glass conditions. A difference in subjective stress was perceived between groups: the perception of relaxation was smaller for participants in the reflective glass group. This research’s main contribution is the observation that there is an elevated restorative potential in well preserved urban environments with architectural projects emphasizing elements such as curved, organic, fluid, complex but harmonic lines, the presence of niches and the integration with nature and water features. In addition, graffiti art presents a promising restorative profile and should be further investigated. We conclude that: it is not possible to treat urban environments as a homogeneous group; it is necessary to study the differences in environments taking into account their complexity; there are differences in classification and perception of the restorative potential of urban environments for lay people and people with training in the arts; and, finally, research in the area should strive to make a joint evaluation of the various aspects of the restoration experience: subjective perception, attentional indicators and physiological indicators].
  • Rheingantz, P. A., Pedro, R. M. L. R., & Szapiro, A. M. (Orgs.). 2016). Qualidade do lugar e cultura contemporânea: Modos de ser e habitar as cidades. Porto Alegre, RS: Ed. Sulina.
  • Rocha, A. L. C., Eckert, C., Maciel, M. E., & Oliven, R. G. (eds.). (2000). Cidade Moderna [Revista temática]. Horzontes Antropológicos, 6, 13.
  • Rocha, E., Azevedo, L. N., Hypolito, B. B., Allemand, D. S., & Tomiello, F. (2017). Urban design – cross-cult — desenho urbana. Pelotas, RS: UFPel, ProGrau.
  • Rudofsky, R. (1995). Strassen für Menschen [streets for people, 1969]. Salzburg: Residenz Verlag.
  • Rybczynski, W. (1987). Home: A short history of an idea. New York: Penguin.
  • Rybczynski, W. (1995). City life: Urban expectations in a new world. New York: Scribner.
  • Sagner, K., Ulrich, M., Lampugnani, & Hollen, M. (Eds.). (2006). Die Eroberung der Strasse: Von Monet bis Grosz. München: Hirmer.
  • Salerno, R., & Villa, D. (Eds.). (2006). Rappresentazoni di cittá: Immaginari emergenti e linguaggi residuali? Milano: Francoangeli Diap.
  • Serva, L. (2008). Cidade limpa — o projeto que mudou a cara de São Paulo. São Paulo: Clio.
  • Simmel, G. (1950). The metropolis and mental life. Em K. H. Wolff (Ed.), The sociology of George Simmel. New York: Free Press. vide este link
  • Soares, F., J. G. (2001). Estatuto da cidade: Lei 10.257/2001. Ro de Janeiro: DP& A editora.
  • Soulier, L. (1977). Espaces verts et urbansme Local(?): Centre e recherche d’urbansme.
  • Speck, J. (2012). Walkable city: How downtown can save America, one step at a time. New York: Farrar, Straus and Groux.
  • Spirn, A. W. (1984). The granite garden. New York: Basic Books.
  • Stevenson, D. (2003). Cities and urban cultures. Phladelphia, PA: Open U Press.
  • Task Force on Urban Psychology. (2005). Toward an urban psychology: Research, acton, and policy. Washngton, DC: American Psychological Association. vide este link
  • Tassara, E. T. O. (2001). Panoramas interdisciplinares para uma psicologia ambiental do urbano.  São Paulo: educ.
  • Taveira, C. C. G. (1974). Geografa do desenvolvimento no Brasil. São Paulo: LISA.
  • Taylor, L. (Ed.). (1990). Housng: Symbol, structure, site. New York: Cooper-Hewitt.
  • Teyssot, G. (1989). De Krankheit des Domizils
  • Ude, Ch. (2000). Stadtradeln – Kleine Philosophie der Passion. München: dtv.
  • Veiga, J. E. (2002). Cidades imaginárias: o Brasil é menos urbano do que se calcula. Campnas, SP: Ed Autores Associados.
  • Velho, G. (Org.). (1999). Antropologa urbana: cultura e sociedade no Brasil e em Portugal. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.
  • Veloso, M., & Elali, G. A. (2006). Qualidade de vida urbana em Natal: mitos e realidade. Natal, RN: EdUFRN.
  • Véras, M. P. B. (2000). Trocando olhares: uma introdução à contribuição sociológica da cidade. São Paulo: Studio Nobel.
  • Vesentini, J. W. (1996). A captal da geopolítica. Campinas, SP: Ed. Ática.
  • Waldie, D. J. (1996). Holy land: A suburban memor. New York: St. Martn Press.
  • Weisshaar, B. (ed.) (2013). Spaziergangswissenschaft in Praxis. Berln: Jovis Verlag.
  • Whyte, W. F. (1981). Street corner society: The social structure of an Italian slum [3rd ed.]. Chcago: U Chicago Press.
  • Whyte, W. H. (1988). City: Rediscovering the center. New York: Anchor Books.
  • Whyte, W. H. (Ed.). (1993). The exploding metropolis. Berkeley, CA: UC Press.
  • Wright, F. L. (1958). The living city. New York: Meridian.
  • Wojtowicz, R. (1998). Sidewalk critic: Lewis Mumford’s writings of New York. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
  • Zhang, L. (2001). Strangers in the city: Reconfigurations of space, power, and social networks within China’s floating population. Standford, CA: Stanford U Press.
  • Zukin, S. (1995). The culture of cities. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell
  • Revistas / Journals
    • The International Communication Gazette, special issue on Communcative Cities, G. Gumpert & S. Drucker, Eds., 2008, vol 70, Nr 3&4
  • UrbanewsOnline.com